jueves, 11 de marzo de 2010

Check your knowledge

What was the Holy Brotherhood?

Hermandad, literally "brotherhood" in Spanish, was a peacekeeping association of armed individuals, which became characteristic of municipal life in medieval Spain, especially in Castile.As medieval Spanish kings were often unable to offer adequate protection, protective municipal leagues began to emerge in the twelfth century against bandits and other rural criminals, as well as against the lawless nobility or to support a one or another claimant to the crown. These organizations were to be temporary, but became a long standing fixture of Spain. The first recorded case of the formation of an hermandad occurred when the towns and the peasantry of the north united to police the pilgrim road to Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, and protect the pilgrims against robber knights. Throughout the Middle Ages such brotherhoods were frequently formed by leagues of towns to protect the roads connecting them. The hermandades were occasionally used for political purposes. They acted to some extent like the Fehmic courts of Germany. Among the most powerful was the league of northern Castilian and Basque ports, the Hermandad de las Marismas: Toledo, Talavera and Villa Real.As one of their first acts after the war of succession, Ferdinand and Isabella established a centrally organized and efficient Holy Hermandad (Santa Hermandad) with themselves at its head. They adapted the existing form of the hermandad to the purpose of creating a general police force under the direction of officials appointed by themselves, and endowed with large powers of summary jurisdiction, even in capital cases. The original hermandades continued to serve as modest local police units until their final suppression in 1835.
What was the function of the Tribunal of the Inquisition?

Ferdinand and Isabella had also overseen the expulsion of the Moors and the Jews from Spain. Between 1480 and 1492 hundreds of conversos (Jews or Moors that had converted to Catholicism) were arrested, imprisoned, interrogated or burned in both Castile and Aragon. According to John Edwars, the author of Ferdinand and Isabella: Profiles in Power, the Kings felt that it was "necessary to remove a genuinely mortal danger from Spanish society – that the Jews masquerading as Catholic Christians are destroying the church within." Also policy initiatives were developed after two incidents that included Jews. The first was an incident that occurred in 1490 that claims that a converso named Benito Garcia was found to have stolen the Host or the unleavened bread of the Mass. It was believed that those who stole the wafers from the churches were inspired by the devil. Investigators, or rather the judicial police, had claimed that there was a conspiracy between 10 conversos and Jews not only to steal the Eucharist but also capture a young boy from La Guardia, near Toledo. They concluded that the Jews had kidnapped the young boy and forced him to suffer the same crucifixion that Jesus had suffered. All conspirators were found guilty in 1491 though no child's body was ever found.Such incidents only furthered the idea of the Inquisition upon the Spanish people. In 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella ordered segregation of communities to create closed quarters which would eventually become "ghettos". This segregation, common at the time, also furthered economic issues upon the Jews and others by increasing taxes and social restrictions. Finally, in 1492, with the Alhambra Decree Jews in Spain were given four months by the monarchs to either convert completely to Catholicism or leave Spain. Tens of thousands of Jews departed from Spain to other lands such as Portugal, North Africa, Italy and the Ottoman Empire. Later in 1492, Ferdinand had issued a letter addressed to the Jews who had left Castile and Aragon, to invite them back to Spain if and only if they were Christians.The Inquisition itself was started by the Dominican friar Tomas de Torquemada, who served as the first Inquisitor General.

Who were the conversors?

Was the people perseocuted by the Inquisition.

How did the Catholic Monarchs strenghten their power over the municipalities and the nobility.



What was the religious policy of the Catolhic Monarchs?

The Catholic Monarchs set out to restore royal authority in Spain. To accomplish their goal, they first created a group named the Holy Brotherhood. These men were used as a judicial police force for Spain. To replace the courts, the Catholic Monarchs created the Royal Council, and appointed chief magistrates (judges) to run the towns and cities. This establishment of royal authority is known as The Pacification of Castile, and can be seen as one of the crucial steps toward the creation of one of Europe's first strong nation-states.

Ferdinand and Isabella were noted for being the monarchs of the newly-united Spain at the dawn of the modern era. The Kings had a goal of completing the Christian Reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula and to conquer the Muslim kingdom of Granada. The beginnings of a series of campaigns known as the Granada War began with the attack of Alhama, a city in Andalusia. The attack was led by two Andalusian nobles Rodrigo Ponce de León and Diego de Merlo. The city fell to Andalusian forces in 1492. The Granada War was aided by Pope Sixtus IV by granting the monarchs a tithe and implementing a crusade tax to invest in the war. After 10 years of many battles the Granada War ended in 1492 when the Emir Boabdil surrendered the keys of the Alhambra Palace in Granada to the Castilian soldiers.


Did the Catholic Monarchs do things which benefited their kingdoms?


Treaties.


What controversial laws and institutions did they introduce?




Your conclusión can include your personal point of view.


Yo opino que los Reyes Catolicos reinaron bien si no fuera por la Inquisicion, yo creo que todo el Mundo tiene que poder ser libre y expresar lo que piensa sin que sea perseguido.





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